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Freeview is the terrestrial TV service for the UK, and is delivered via an aerial to either the TV’s built in tuner, or to a set top box.
Freeview channels have different levels of availability, and the Freeview Multiplex Guide explains how channels are carried, and where the are available.
Some channels are available in HD, requiring newer DVB-T2 equipment. This equipment is identified by Freeview HD or Freeview Play branding. Irish Soarview equipment is also DVB-T2 compatible, and should work with the Freeview HD service.
Internal or external aerials can be used, although most equipment manufacturers recommend the use of external, usually roof top aerials. External aerials are more likely to achieve a direct line of sight to the transmitter, meaning better signal, and are less likely to be impacted by building structures.
On a personal note, I have achieved some success with internal aerials. Observations suggest flat panel aerials tend to work best, usually with a built in booster. More conventional telescopic aerials also can work, but are much harder to get correctly positioned.
As tested, the flat panel aerial was a One for All at around £45, with the telescopic a Polaroid costing around £15 from Asda. A telescopic One for All model around £30 achieved no results and was duly returned, suggesting more expensive does not mean better results.